At present, dry load batteries, ordinary batteries and maintenance-free batteries are three commonly used vehicle batteries.
A general storage battery is a battery in which an electrode of a battery is composed of an oxide of lead and lead, and an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid is used as an electrolyte. Stable voltage and low price make it more widely used, but it does not store as much power as other batteries, and it requires frequent maintenance and maintenance. Dry-charged lead-acid batteries, generally referred to as dry-charge batteries, can save power for 24 months in the case of complete drying. The charging speed is also much faster than that of an ordinary battery. Generally, charging can be completed in about half an hour. The biggest difference between the maintenance-free battery and other batteries is that it does not need to add electrolyte. Some maintenance-free batteries on the market even seal the electrolyte port when it is sold, so users are not allowed to add electrolyte at all. The performance of the maintenance-free battery is much better than that of the two batteries. For example, it is shockproof, high temperature resistant, small in size, less self-discharged, and has a relatively long service life. However, the price will be relatively expensive, which also meets the needs of different people for the use of batteries.
The body battery is also a lead-acid battery system, and the gel battery is only a colloidal substance added to the electrolyte.
The anti-vulcanization ability and low-temperature performance of the colloidal battery are better than ordinary lead-acid batteries.
However, the production process of colloidal batteries is higher than that of ordinary lead-acid batteries, and it is more prone to thermal runaway.
Advantages and disadvantages of wound battery
1: The size is more flexible, and can be made into triangles, circles, and the like.
2: Mechanization is not easy to achieve.
3: The pole piece should be punched and cut, with more sections, easy to pierce the diaphragm, easy to short circuit, and easy to produce a reaction.
4: The tension of the battery is not easy to control.
5: The pole piece is easy to check or pick.
1: Mechanization is easy, speed is faster, uniformity is more guaranteed, and it is conducive to mass production.
2: There is an inconsistent tension between the front side and the side surface, resulting in uneven internal reaction.
3: High coating requirements for pole pieces.
4: The pole piece layer is required to have a certain elasticity, otherwise it may fall off or be broken at the bend.
5: Since the electrode is taken out from the pole piece, there is a problem of electric field distribution. The electrode layer is required to have good electrical conductivity. The key is that the process is difficult to control.
Lead-acid batteries are safe and reliable, cost-effective, and adapt to a wide range of environments. But they are lower than energy (that is, heavy). Lithium batteries have higher specific energy (ie, lighter), but they are expensive, safety is to be determined, and the application environment should be between 10 and 40 degrees. NiMH batteries are somewhere in between, but there are not many applications at present.
The main advantages of lithium batteries:
The lithium battery voltage platform is high: the average voltage of the single battery is 3.7V or 3.2V, which is equal to the series voltage of three nickel-cadmium batteries or nickel-hydrogen batteries, which is convenient for forming a battery power pack;
The lithium battery has a high energy density relative to the battery. With high storage energy density, it has reached 460-600Wh/kg, which is about 6-7 times of lead-acid battery;
Compared with lead-acid batteries, lithium batteries are light in weight, and the weight in the same volume is about 1/5-6 of that of lead-acid products;
Lithium battery has a relatively long service life, and the service life can reach more than 6 years. The battery with lithium iron phosphate as the positive electrode is charged and discharged with 1CDOD, and there are 1000 records that can be used;
With high power bearing capacity, lithium iron phosphate lithium ion battery for electric vehicles can achieve 15-30C charge and discharge capacity, which is convenient for high-intensity start-up acceleration;
Low self-discharge rate, no memory effect;
The lithium battery has high adaptability to high and low temperature, and can be used in the environment of -20 ° C - 60 ° C. After the process treatment, it can be used in the environment of -45 ° C;
Green, no matter whether it is produced, used or scrapped, it does not contain any toxic and harmful heavy metal elements and substances such as lead, mercury and cadmium.
Disadvantages of lithium batteries
Lithium batteries with bad quality have poor safety and there is a danger of explosion.
Lithium batteries of lithium cobalt oxide materials cannot be discharged at a large current, and the safety is poor.
Lithium batteries need to protect the line to prevent the battery from being overcharged and discharged.
The production requirements are high and the cost is high.